The agricultural sector is one of the most important economic driving forces in the country.
The agricultural sector is one of the most important economic driving forces in the country.
The export of primary products supports the economy of the world's sixth-largest state. In particular, its agricultural produce such as wheat, wool, meat and wine are known all over the world.
In the Alpine Republic, the bioeconomy strategy is based on the food industry, chemicals, pharmaceuticals and the timber industry.
The bio-based economy has a long tradition in the beer brewing nation – more than 500 beers are produced there. The regional division between Flanders and Wallonia is also reflected in research and industry.
The strongest South American economy is rich in bio-based raw materials. The Amazon country has unrivaled biodiversity. However, there is no bioeconomy strategy.
The world's second largest country does not yet have a national bioeconomy strategy, but there are strategies with bioeconomy elements and provinces that have already developed their own vision of a bioeconomy. A comprehensive update of this country dossier.
The westernmost country in South America is rich in bioresources, is a globally important agricultural and food producer, and has an export-oriented forestry industry. The biotechnology sector is on the rise. While there is no explicit bioeconomy strategy, a number of policies are relevant to the biobased economy.
In the current 12th Five-Year Plan, the bioindustry is one of the emerging industries in the spotlight. The Plan for the Development of Bioindustry is about sustainable growth, as it also contributes to smart urban development. Tradtionally, biotechnology has been strongly promoted in China.
Colombia is home to about 10% of the world's species. The country has recognized the economic potential offered by this bioresource diversity and placed it at the center of its new bioeconomy strategy.
Agriculture and the biotech industry – especially the production of enzymes – are among the strengths of the southern Scandinavians. Denmark does not yet have a dedicated national bioeconomy strategy.
Estonia, the most northern of the Baltic States, is still working on its own bioeconomy strategy.
Finland’s dense pine forests are the central resource of its bioeconomy.
The agriculture and food industries are among the most important economic sectors in France.
Politically, Germany set the course for the bioeconomy at an early stage.
Modern agricultural technologies, bioenergy and biotechnology are on the agenda for research policy in the United Kingdom.
Iceland plays a leading role in a bioeconomy alliance with Greenland and the Faroe Islands. Marine resources dominate the bio-based economy in Europe’s second largest island state. Iceland has teamed up with Greenland and the Faroe Islands to jointly develop a bioeconomy strategy.
India is a pioneer in the production of biopharmaceuticals, but has also been developing its bioeconomy since the revision of its "National Biotechnology Development Strategy". A growing economy and rising population lead, among other things, to a steady increase in energy demand. This is also to be increasingly covered by biofuels.
Palm oil is one of the most important raw materials of the biobased economy in this tropical country offering an abundance of resources.
There is a strong tradition of agriculture on the Emerald Isle, and of course, marine resources and fisheries also play an important role there. Industrial pharmaceutical production has also secured its place in Ireland.
Green chemistry and biofuels are important pillars of the biobased economy in Italy.
Japan is a highly industrialized country and, as a mountainous island nation, has special geographical conditions. These circumstances mean that Japan mostly has to import food, animal feed and biomass for industrial use, and bioenergy only plays a minor role. Biomass as a chemical raw material, on the other hand, has a long tradition in Japan. In a country with a strong research sector, the same applies to biotechnology. This is probably one reason why the bioeconomy strategy adopted in 2019 focuses strongly on the high-tech side of the bioeconomy.
Kenya has discovered the enormous economic potential of its biodiversity and has developed strategies to make use of these resources.
The Baltic Latvia is strongly influenced by agriculture and forestry. A bio-economic strategy was adopted in 2017. As a "data-driven nation", Latvia is also a pioneer in digitisation.
The Baltic country is known worldwide for its industrial enzyme production. Since the middle of the 1970s, industrial biotechnology - particularly enzyme production - has been concentrated in Lithuania.
Traditional bioenergy such as wood and charcoal are the main energy sources in Mali. In order to protect the forests, modernise the energy sector, and promote rural electrification, the country relies on the oil of the jatropha plant.
The ocean is at the heart of the country's economic development. In 2013, the Mauritian government published a comprehensive roadmap on “Ocean Economy”, which outlines how Mauritius will transform to grow economically, create jobs and wealth.
Bioenergy is the focus of attention in the corn’s country of origin.
The development of bioenergy is a top priority within the country’s political agenda. Since 2004/2005, Mozambique has supported the cultivation of the jatropha plant for biofuel projects.
In 2015, Namibia adopted its "National Program on Research, Science, Technology and Innovation". The strategy is part of Namibia's vision to become a prosperous and industrialised country by 2030. It was developed by the "National Commission on Research, Science & Technology" in consultation with numerous stakeholders.
New Zealand's bioeconomy is characterised by agriculture, the food industry and fishing - a bioenergy sector is developing.
With the objective of diversifying energy sources and promoting agroindustrial development, Nigeria adopted its national "Biofuel Policy and Incentives" strategy in 2007.
Norway gains its wealth from its plentiful natural resources.
Paraguay has formulated a biotechnology strategy for agriculture and forestry.
Poland is one of the largest agricultural nations in the European Union. Activities focus on biomass production and biomass processing.
Portugal wishes to use its plentiful maritime resources in an innovative and sustainable way.
The bioeconomic activities in Russia are based both on natural resources and the development of biotechnology.
Senegal does not have its own bioeconomy strategy. The country primarily focuses on bioenergy and specifically on the jatropha plant.
The bioeconomy already found its way into South Africa’s innovation policy several years ago.
In 2006, South Korea was one of the first countries in Asia to focus on bioeconomy by adopting its "Bio-Vision 2016", outlining clear targets for biotechnology and bioeconomy development.
After several years of preparation, Spain has launched its national bioeconomy strategy called "Horizonte 2030" (Horizon 2030). It commenced at the end of 2015 and, by 2030, aims to extend the Spanish economy to the area of sustainable bioeconomy.
Inspired by political developments in South and Southeast Asia, the Sri Lankan Cabinet of Ministers adopted its "National Biotechnology Policy" in 2010. The strategy comes from the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Science and Technology Commission (NASTEC).
Sustainable biomass production is being promoted in the wooded kingdom.
Since 2010, Tanzania has had a "National Biotechnology Policy". With the deployment of biotechnology, the country wants to create the transition from agricultural self-sufficiency to an industrial economy.
Thailand does not have its own bioeconomy strategy, but is one of Asia’s pioneers with regard to biotechnology. Political strategies for the further development of biotechnology have existed since 2004.
The Netherlands is a leader in food processing. The small country on the North Sea is one of the largest exporters of agricultural products worldwide.
The "Biomass Energy Strategy", adopted in 2014, aims to maximise the benefits of its biomass resources. Similar to the "National Biotechnology and Biosafety Policy" of 2008, the strategy's objective is to initiate discussions to stimulate Uganda's growth, to improve healthcare and food security.
Building on a biotechnology strategy, the potential for bioeconomy is currently being explored in Uruguay.
The United States sees an important economic future in the bioeconomy. The US bioeconomy strategy presented in 2012, the “National Bioeconomy Blueprint”, explicitly includes biomedicine.
The food industry lies at the heart of the domestic economy in the Communist-controlled country in Southeast Asia.
Vietnam is a leader in fish exports from aquaculture such as tilapia, pangasius and shrimp. Its other major exports include rice, coffee and wood products. The cultivation of soybeans and sugar cane is also important for domestic agriculture, which accounts for 20% of gross domestic product (GDP), but makes up 48% of all labor. A national strategy aims to boost growth of the green economy.