Russia relies primarily on its natural resources for its bioeconomy activities: forests, arable land and access to water. Biotechnology will serve as a tool for further development. In 2011, for example, former Russian President Dimitri Medvedev adopted a national bioeconomy strategy developed by the National Technology Platform Biotech 2030. The Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Economic Affairs, the Ministry of Trade and the Ministry of Research are involved in this platform. A number of research facilities are also available. Within the platform there are six subdivisions: industrial biotechnology, forestry, ecology, agriculture, fisheries and "food for life". As part of the technology platform, cooperation between the state, the free economy, science and research institutions is regulated and a total of 160 public and private organisations are involved. More than half of its members come from the economic sector. In 2012, the BIO 2020 Program (Comprehensive Program for the Development of Biotechnology in Russia by 2020) was signed and a roadmap for biotechnology for the period up to the year 2020 was adopted by the government. These also include a number of projects relevant to the bioeconomy.
The bioeconomic activities in Russia are based both on natural resources and the development of biotechnology.